Review Article
Abbas Alipour, Hamid Mohammadjafari, Alireza Rafiei, Omolbanin Amjadi
Ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO) is the most common obstructive disease of the urinary tract in infancy and childhood with a prevalence of 15% - 45% in neonates with antenatal hydronephrosis. The diagnosis of UPJO should be confirmed by imaging studies - most of which have a propensity ... read more
Review Article
Ali Abbaskhanian, Soheila Shahmohammadi
Recently, new anti-epileptic drugs are marketed to be used as an add-on to the traditional drugs in children with refractory epilepsy. Levetiracetam is a second-generation of new anti-epileptic drugs with unknown precise mechanism of action in brain and synaptic vesicle in children with drug resistant epilepsy. Herein, ... read more
Review Article
Mohamad A Bitar, Charbel Rameh, Nour F Ataya, Alik Najarian, Marita Chakhtoura, Alexander Abdelnoor
The palatine tonsils are secondary lymphoid organs, important in sampling antigens directly from the epithelial surfaces. They produce antibodies locally and distally through their migrating B cells.The aim of this study was to compare the changes in serum and saliva immunoglobulin (Ig) levels after total vs. partial ... read more
Review Article
Kaveh Haddadi
Hydrocephalus is a disorder in which excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collects in the brain. Possible managements for hydrocephalus contain CSF deviation through ventriculoperitoneal shunt assignment and endoscopic third ventriculostomy. An endoscopic third ventriculostomy has been in trend for the past two decades, as a tool in the ... read more
Review Article
Brittany Michelle Reid, Alecia Thompson-Branch
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) remains one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality for premature infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). Many theories concerning its pathophysiology and inciting factors have been suggested but progression in preventing the onset of NEC has been minimal. While ... read more
Review Article
Hasan Karami, Mojdeh Dabirian
Nowadays, acute pancreatitis is not a rare disease in children and adolescences and the incidence of the disease has increased in pediatric patients over the past two decades. Acute pancreatitis in children can be triggered by a wide array of factors such as drugs, infections, trauma, anatomic ... read more
Review Article
Joshua T Emmerson, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that cannot be generated de novo and are therefore obtained from the diet. In the brain, these vitamins are involved in nucleotide synthesis, DNA repair, lipid metabolism, methylation and neurotransmitter synthesis. It is well established that adequate levels of maternal folates are required for ... read more
Case Report and Review of Literature
Ali Nikkhah
Drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DHS), also named drug rash with Eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a potentially dangerous side effect of some drugs, especially antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) such as phenobarbital, phenytoin, carbamazepine, lamotrigine, primidone, etc. It can also be caused by other drugs, such as sulfonamides and ... read more
Research Article
Joy Higgins, Gary Beck Dallaghan, Sharon Stoolman, Adam Reinhardt
During clinic training in medical school, the learning environment plays a pivotal role in molding medical student’s behavior. A systematic assessment of patient care learning environments needs to be conducted. With two medical schools utilizing limited pediatric patient base, student evaluations indicated dissatisfaction with inpatient and general ... read more

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