Journal of Pediatrics Review

Published by: Kowsar

Sun Protection for Children: A Review

Nazanin Shafie Pour 1 , Majid Saeedi 1 , 2 , * , Katayoun Morteza Semnani 3 , 4 and Jafar Akbari 1
Authors Information
1 Department of Pharmaceutics, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
2 Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
3 Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
4 Complementary and Traditional Medicine Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari, IR Iran
Article information
  • Journal of Pediatrics Review: January 31, 2015, 3 (1); e155
  • Published Online: January 20, 2015
  • Article Type: Review Article
  • Received: September 12, 2014
  • Revised: November 18, 2014
  • Accepted: December 28, 2014
  • DOI: 10.5812/jpr.155

To Cite: Shafie Pour N, Saeedi M, Morteza Semnani K, Akbari J. Sun Protection for Children: A Review, J Pediatr Rev. 2015 ;3(1):e155. doi: 10.5812/jpr.155.

Copyright © 2015, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License ( which permits copy and redistribute the material just in noncommercial usages, provided the original work is properly cited.
1. Context
2. Evidence Acquisition
3. Results
4. Conclusions
  • 1. Paller AS, Hawk JL, Honig P, Giam YC, Hoath S, Mack MC, et al. New insights about infant and toddler skin: implications for sun protection. Pediatrics. 2011; 128(1): 92-102[DOI][PubMed]
  • 2. Jarrett P, Sharp C, McLelland J. Protection of children by their mothers against sunburn. BMJ. 1993; 306(6890): 1448[PubMed]
  • 3. Wingo PA, Ries LA, Giovino GA, Miller DS, Rosenberg HM, Shopland DR, et al. Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1973-1996, with a special section on lung cancer and tobacco smoking. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1999; 91(8): 675-90[PubMed]
  • 4. Dulon M, Weichenthal M, Blettner M, Breitbart M, Hetzer M, Greinert R, et al. Sun exposure and number of nevi in 5- to 6-year-old European children. J Clin Epidemiol. 2002; 55(11): 1075-81[PubMed]
  • 5. Saeedi M. An overview of cosmetics and toiletries. 2013;
  • 6. Armstrong B, English D. Cancer Epidemiology and Prevention. 1996;
  • 7. Buller DB, Borland R. Public education projects in skin cancer prevention: child care, school, and college-based. Clin Dermatol. 1998; 16(4): 447-59[PubMed]
  • 8. Ebrahimzadeh MA, Enayatifard R, Khalili M, Ghaffarloo M, Saeedi M, Yazdani Charati J. Correlation between Sun Protection Factor and Antioxidant Activity, Phenol and Flavonoid Contents of some Medicinal Plants. Iran J Pharm Res. 2014; 13(3): 1041-7[PubMed]
  • 9. Orentreich D, Leone AS, Arpino G, Burack H. Sunscreens: practical applications. 2001;
  • 10. Munsters J, Wallstrom L, Agren J, Norsted T, Sindelar R. Skin conductance measurements as pain assessment in newborn infants born at 22-27 weeks gestational age at different postnatal age. Early Hum Dev. 2012; 88(1): 21-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 11. Bonny AE, Britto MT, Klostermann BK, Hornung RW, Slap GB. School disconnectedness: identifying adolescents at risk. Pediatrics. 2000; 106(5): 1017-21[PubMed]
  • 12. Wright CY, Brogniez C, Ncongwane KP, Sivakumar V, Coetzee G, Metzger JM, et al. Sunburn risk among children and outdoor workers in South Africa and Reunion Island coastal sites. Photochem Photobiol. 2013; 89(5): 1226-33[DOI][PubMed]
  • 13. Mah L, Di Giovine P, Quinn L, Sparnon A. Paediatric sunburn: the experience of an Australian paediatric burns unit. J Paediatr Child Health. 2013; 49(8): 654-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 14. Kalia YN, Nonato LB, Lund CH, Guy RH. Development of skin barrier function in premature infants. J Invest Dermatol. 1998; 111(2): 320-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 15. Zollner AM, Buganza Tepole A, Kuhl E. On the biomechanics and mechanobiology of growing skin. J Theor Biol. 2012; 297: 166-75[DOI][PubMed]
  • 16. Maguire-Eisen M. Skin cancer: a growing health problem for children. Semin Oncol Nurs. 2013; 29(3): 206-13[DOI][PubMed]
  • 17. Pinnell SR, Oresajo C. Oxidative stress and protection provided by topical antioxidants. 2010;
  • 18. Marks R, Whiteman D. Sunburn and melanoma: how strong is the evidence? BMJ. 1994; 308(6921): 75-6[PubMed]
  • 19. Elwood JM, Jopson J. Melanoma and sun exposure: an overview of published studies. Int J Cancer. 1997; 73(2): 198-203[PubMed]
  • 20. Westerdahl J, Olsson H, Ingvar C. At what age do sunburn episodes play a crucial role for the development of malignant melanoma. Eur J Cancer. 1994; 30A(11): 1647-54[PubMed]
  • 21. Wysong A, Gladstone H, Kim D, Lingala B, Copeland J, Tang JY. Sunscreen use in NCAA collegiate athletes: identifying targets for intervention and barriers to use. Prev Med. 2012; 55(5): 493-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 22. Koshy JC, Sharabi SE, Jerkins D, Cox J, Cronin SP, Hollier LJ. Sunscreens: evolving aspects of sun protection. J Pediatr Health Care. 2010; 24(5): 343-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 23. Carpenter DO, Bushkin-Bedient S. Exposure to chemicals and radiation during childhood and risk for cancer later in life. J Adolesc Health. 2013; 52(5 Suppl)-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 24. Solomon GM, Weiss PM. Chemical contaminants in breast milk: time trends and regional variability. Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110(6)-47[PubMed]
  • 25. The priority list of hazardous substances that will be the subject of toxicological profiles.
  • 26. Beir V. Health effects of exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation. 1990;
  • 27. Kohli S, Noorlind Brage H, Lofman O. Childhood leukaemia in areas with different radon levels: a spatial and temporal analysis using GIS. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2000; 54(11): 822-6[PubMed]
  • 28. Brenner D, Elliston C, Hall E, Berdon W. Estimated risks of radiation-induced fatal cancer from pediatric CT. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 2001; 176(2): 289-96[DOI][PubMed]
  • 29. Almahroos M, Kurban AK. Sun protection for children and adolescents. Clin Dermatol. 2003; 21(4): 311-4[PubMed]
  • 30. Skin cancer prevention and early detection, cancerfacts & figures 2002. 2002;
  • 31. Vuong K, McGeechan K, Armstrong BK, Amfs Investigators , G. E. M. Investigators , Cust AE. Occupational sun exposure and risk of melanoma according to anatomical site. Int J Cancer. 2014; 134(11): 2735-41[DOI][PubMed]
  • 32. Klostermann S, Bolte G, G. M. E. Study Group . Determinants of inadequate parental sun protection behaviour in their children--results of a cross-sectional study in Germany. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2014; 217(2-3): 363-9[DOI][PubMed]
  • 33. Oliveria SA, Saraiya M, Geller AC, Heneghan MK, Jorgensen C. Sun exposure and risk of melanoma. Arch Dis Child. 2006; 91(2): 131-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 34. Veierod MB, Couto E, Lund E, Adami HO, Weiderpass E. Host characteristics, sun exposure, indoor tanning and risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. Int J Cancer. 2014; 135(2): 413-22[DOI][PubMed]
  • 35. Crane LA, Asdigian NL, Baron AE, Aalborg J, Marcus AC, Mokrohisky ST, et al. Mailed intervention to promote sun protection of children: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Prev Med. 2012; 43(4): 399-410[DOI][PubMed]
  • 36. Richelle M, Sabatier M, Steiling H, Williamson G. Skin bioavailability of dietary vitamin E, carotenoids, polyphenols, vitamin C, zinc and selenium. Br J Nutr. 2006; 96(2): 227-38[PubMed]
  • 37. Buller DB, Cokkinides V, Hall HI, Hartman AM, Saraiya M, Miller E, et al. Prevalence of sunburn, sun protection, and indoor tanning behaviors among Americans: review from national surveys and case studies of 3 states. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2011; 65(5 Suppl 1)-23[DOI][PubMed]
  • 38. Prevention CF. Sunburn and sun protective behaviors among adults aged 18–29 years-United States, 2000-2010. 2012; 61: 317-30
  • 39. Sun-protection behaviors used by adults for their children-United States, 1997. 1998; 47: 480-482
  • 40. Hirst NG, Gordon LG, Scuffham PA, Green AC. Lifetime cost-effectiveness of skin cancer prevention through promotion of daily sunscreen use. Value Health. 2012; 15(2): 261-8[DOI][PubMed]
  • 41. Robinson JK, Rademaker AW, Sylvester JA, Cook B. Summer sun exposure: knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Midwest adolescents. Prev Med. 1997; 26(3): 364-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 42. Kelleher MM, O'Carroll M, Gallagher A, Murray DM, Dunn Galvin A, Irvine AD, et al. Newborn transepidermal water loss values: a reference dataset. Pediatr Dermatol. 2013; 30(6): 712-6[DOI][PubMed]
  • 43. Kripke ML, Morison WL. Modulation of immune function by UV radiation. J Invest Dermatol. 1985; 85(1 Suppl): 62s-6s[PubMed]
  • 44. Richmond JB, Kotelchuck M. Personal health maintenance for children. West J Med. 1984; 141(6): 816-23[PubMed]
  • 45. Gritz ER, Tripp MK, James AS, Carvajal SC, Harrist RB, Mueller NH, et al. An intervention for parents to promote preschool children's sun protection: effects of Sun Protection is Fun! Prev Med. 2005; 41(2): 357-66[DOI][PubMed]
  • 46. Milne E, Jacoby P, Giles-Corti B, Cross D, Johnston R, English DR. The impact of the kidskin sun protection intervention on summer suntan and reported sun exposure: was it sustained? Prev Med. 2006; 42(1): 14-20[DOI][PubMed]
  • 47. O'Riordan DL, Geller AC, Brooks DR, Zhang Z, Miller DR. Sunburn reduction through parental role modeling and sunscreen vigilance. J Pediatr. 2003; 142(1): 67-72[DOI][PubMed]
  • 48. Lawrenson JG, Birhah R, Murphy PJ. Tear-film lipid layer morphology and corneal sensation in the development of blinking in neonates and infants. J Anat. 2005; 206(3): 265-70[DOI][PubMed]
  • 49. Dusza SW, Halpern AC, Satagopan JM, Oliveria SA, Weinstock MA, Scope A, et al. Prospective study of sunburn and sun behavior patterns during adolescence. Pediatrics. 2012; 129(2): 309-17[DOI][PubMed]
  • 50. Bauer J, Buttner P, Wiecker TS, Luther H, Garbe C. Effect of sunscreen and clothing on the number of melanocytic nevi in 1,812 German children attending day care. Am J Epidemiol. 2005; 161(7): 620-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 51. Dobbinson S, Wakefield M, Hill D, Girgis A, Aitken JF, Beckmann K, et al. Children's sun exposure and sun protection: prevalence in Australia and related parental factors. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2012; 66(6): 938-47[DOI][PubMed]
  • 52. Should You Put Sunscreen on Infants? Not Usually. 2014;
  • 53. Balato N, Gaudiello F, Balato A, Monfrecola G. Sun habits in the children of Southern Italy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2007; 57(5): 883-7[DOI][PubMed]
  • 54. Buchanan N, Leisenring W, Mitby PA, Meadows AT, Robison LL, Hudson MM, et al. Behaviors associated with ultraviolet radiation exposure in a cohort of adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: a report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study. Cancer. 2009; 115(18 Suppl): 4374-84[DOI][PubMed]
  • 55. Mays D, Black JD, Mosher RB, Shad AT, Tercyak KP. Improving short-term sun safety practices among adolescent survivors of childhood cancer: a randomized controlled efficacy trial. J Cancer Surviv. 2011; 5(3): 247-54[DOI][PubMed]
  • 56. Robinson JK, Rigel DS, Amonette RA. Summertime sun protection used by adults for their children. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2000; 42(5 Pt 1): 746-53[PubMed]
  • 57. Larsen MB, Petersen B, Philipsen PA, Young A, Thieden E, Wulf HC. Sun exposure and protection behavior of Danish farm children: parental influence on their children, Photochemistry and Photobiology 2014. 2014;
Creative Commons License Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial 4.0 International License .

Search Relations:



Create Citiation Alert
via Google Reader

Readers' Comments