Volume 7, Issue 1 (1-2019)                   J. Pediatr. Rev 2019, 7(1): 61-66 | Back to browse issues page

DOI: 10.32598/jpr.7.1.61

XML Print

1- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
2- Non-communicable Pediatric Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran
3- Student Research Center, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
4- Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Health Research Institute, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran. , Rezaghadimi@yahoo.com
Abstract:   (1552 Views)
Background: Several studies have developed sex-specific reference percentile curves for body fat percentage in children to be adopted in clinical surveys. 
Objectives: This study aimed to develop acceptable percentile curves for body fat percentage in children in Babol, North of Iran, to assess childhood obesity.
Methods: Body fat percentile charts were created using bioelectrical impedance analysis of 7 to 11 years old schoolchildren from rural and urban parts of Babol. The obtained percentile charts were then smoothed.
Results: The findings showed that the mean fat percentages differed between boys and girls. The 50th percentile curve was slightly higher for boys of 7-11 years, with a peak fat percentage of 22.50% at 11 years of age, whereas the mean fat percentage increased with age in 7 to 9 years old girls (16.8%-22.05%), reduced slightly from 9 years of age, and then peaked at 25.5% at 11 years.
Conclusions: This study provided reference curves for body fat percentage in the North Iranian children, who were found to have significantly high body fat percentage. It may be useful to further prepare national reference values and cut-off points for body fat percentage as a predictor of childhood obesity.
Full-Text [PDF 568 kb]   (554 Downloads) |   |   Full-Text (HTML)  (1469 Views)  
Type of Study: Original Article |
Received: 2017/07/4 | Accepted: 2018/03/3 | Published: 2019/01/1

1. Colombo O, Villani S, Pinelli G, Trentani C, Baldi M, Tomarchio O, et al. To treat or not to treat: Comparison of different criteria used to determine whether weight loss is to be recommended. Nutrition Journal. 2008; 7(5):1-7. [DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-7-5] [DOI:10.1186/1475-2891-7-5]
2. Eissa MA, Gunner KB. Evaluation and management of obesity in children and adolescents. Journal of Pediatric Health Care. 2004; 18(1):35-8. [DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2003.11.002] [DOI:10.1016/j.pedhc.2003.11.002]
3. Ghadimi R, Asgharzadeh E, Sajjadi P. Obesity among elementary schoolchildren: A growing concern in the North of Iran, 2012. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2015; 6:99. [PMID] [PMID] [PMCID]
4. Kelishadi R, Ardalan G, Gheiratmand R, Gouya MM, Razaghi EM, Delavari A, et al. Association of physical activity and dietary behaviours in relation to the body mass index in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents: CASPIAN Study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2007; 85(1):19-26. [DOI:10.2471/BLT.06.030783] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.2471/BLT.06.030783]
5. Tol A, Tavassoli E, Shariferad GR, Shojaeezadeh D. Health-promoting lifestyle and quality of life among undergraduate students at school of health, Isfahan university of medical sciences. Journal of education and health promotion. 2013; 2:11. [DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.108006] [DOI:10.4103/2277-9531.108006]
6. Lee HA, Lee WK, Kong KA, Chang N, Ha EH, Hong YS, et al. The effect of eating behavior on being overweight or obese during preadolescence. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health. 2011; 44(5):226. [DOI:10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.5.226] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3961/jpmph.2011.44.5.226]
7. Steinbeck KS. The importance of physical activity in the prevention of overweight and obesity in childhood: A review and an opinion. Obesity Reviews. 2001; 2(2):117-30. [DOI:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2001.00033.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1046/j.1467-789x.2001.00033.x]
8. Lahti-Koski M, Pietinen P, Heliövaara M, Vartiainen E. Associations of body mass index and obesity with physical activity, food choices, alcohol intake, and smoking in the 1982-1997 FINRISK Studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2002; 75(5):809-17. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/75.5.809] [PMID] [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/75.5.809]
9. Ezzati M, Vander Hoorn S, Lopez AD, Danaei G, Rodgers A, Mathers CD, Murray CJ. Comparative quantification of mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected risk factors. In Lopez AD, editor, Global burden of disease and risk factors. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
10. Daniels SR. The consequences of childhood overweight and obesity. The Future of Children. 2006; 16(1):47-67. [DOI:10.1353/foc.2006.0004] [PMID] [DOI:10.1353/foc.2006.0004]
11. Eisenkölbl J, Kartasurya M, Widhalm K. Underestimation of percentage fat mass measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis compared to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry method in obese children. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 2001; 55(6):423-9. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601184] [PMID] [DOI:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601184]
12. Cole TJ, Lobstein T. Extended international (IOTF) body mass index cut-offs for thinness, overweight and obesity. Pediatric Obesity. 2012; 7(4):284-94. [DOI:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00064.x] [PMID] [DOI:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00064.x]
13. Laurson KR, Eisenmann JC, Welk GJ. Body fat percentile curves for US children and adolescents. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2011; 41(4):S87-S92. [DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.044] [PMID] [DOI:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.044]
14. Fathi M, Hajiahmadi M, Esmaili H, Ghadimi R. Northern Iranian Growth Chart for 7-11 years old children: How Different from the Existing International Reference Curves. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (in press).
15. Kettaneh A, Heude B, Lommez A, Borys JM, Ducimetière P, Charles MA. Reliability of bioimpedance analysis compared with other adiposity measurements in children: The FLVS II Study. Diabetes & Metabolism. 2005; 31(6):534-41. [DOI:10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70228-8] [DOI:10.1016/S1262-3636(07)70228-8]
16. Tyrrell V, Richards G, Hofman P, Gillies G, Robinson E, Cutfield W. Foot-to-foot bioelectrical impedance analysis: A valuable tool for the measurement of body composition in children. International Journal of Obesity. 2001; 25(2):273-8. [DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801531] [PMID] [DOI:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801531]
17. Houtkooper LB, Lohman TG, Going SB, Howell WH. Why bioelectrical impedance analysis should be used for estimating adiposity. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 1996; 64(3):436S-48. [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/64.3.436S] [PMID] [DOI:10.1093/ajcn/64.3.436S]
18. Ward LC. Segmental bioelectrical impedance analysis: An update. Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition & Metabolic Care. 2012; 15(5):424-9. [DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328356b944] [PMID] [DOI:10.1097/MCO.0b013e328356b944]
19. Mann J, Truswell S. Essentials of human nutrition. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2012.
20. Schwandt P, von Eckardstein A, Haas GM. Percentiles of percentage body fat in german children and adolescents: An international comparison. International Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2012; 3(12):846. [DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.104855] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.104855]
21. Kurtoglu S, Mazicioglu MM, Ozturk A, Hatipoglu N, Cicek B, Ustunbas HB. Body fat reference curves for healthy Turkish children and adolescents. European Journal of Pediatrics. 2010; 169(11):1329-35. [DOI:10.1007/s00431-010-1225-4] [PMID] [DOI:10.1007/s00431-010-1225-4]
22. Sung RY, So H, Choi K, Li AM, Yin J. Body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in Hong Kong Chinese children. Hong Kong Medical Journal. 2009; 15(2):110-7. [PMID] [PMID]
23. Kim K, Yun SH, Jang MJ, Oh KW. Body fat percentile curves for Korean children and adolescents: A data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2009-2010. Journal of Korean Medical Science. 2013; 28(3):443-9. [DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.3.443] [PMID] [PMCID] [DOI:10.3346/jkms.2013.28.3.443]
24. Borrud LG, Flegal KM, Freedman DS, Li Y, Ogden CL. Smoothed percentage body fat percentiles for US children and adolescents, 1999-2004. Hyattsville: National Center for Health Statistics; 2011. [PMCID]
25. Papandreou D, Malindretos P, Rousso I. First body fat percentiles for 607 children from Thessaloniki-Northern Greece. Hippokratia. 2010; 14(3):208. [PMID] [PMCID] [PMID] [PMCID]